Definition        Etymology        Types        Uncertainty        Rock Types        Initiation


What Are Tafoni?

Tafoni are ellipsoidal, pan- to bowl-shaped, natural rock cavities. These cavernous weathering features include tiny pits, softball-sized cavities, truck-sized caves, and nested and cellular honeycomb forms. Tafoni typically develop on inclined or vertical surfaces and occur in groups. These exquisite and fascinating cavernous weathering landforms are present on the surfaces of many different kinds of rocks located in a multitude of geographic regions around the world. Since the late 1800s, more than 100 research articles have been published in numerous languages on this geomorphic topic. Tafoni development and evolution is puzzling and continues to arouse curiosity (see References: Blackwelder, 1929; Boxerman, 2006; Hejl, 2005; Pestrong, 1988; Smith, 1982).

Tafoni-like features comprise a class of relatively deep, rounded to elongated natural rock cavities bored primarily by rock weathering processes and secondarily by erosional processes. In the geological literature, the distinction between cavernous weathering features is muddled. I think tafoni structures include: small tafoni, pits, hollows, niches, recesses, alcoves, alveoles, alveolar weathering pits, gnammas (?), stone fretting, fretwork, recesses, honeycomb, and honeycomb weathering. Geomorphologists point to salt weathering, differential weathering processes, lithologic variation, and micro-climates, as important factors on the development of these cave-like rock structures.

On geologic time-scales, tafoni cause rapid coastal landscape retreat, while desert landscapes retreat more slowly. Gill, Segnit, and McNeil (1981) estimate that tafoni weathering processes cause 10 percent of all coastal retreat. On human time-scales, tafoni destroys important stone monuments and sea walls. See these time-series photographs for evidence of change. Researchers study the tafoni rock weathering phenomenon to learn how to prevent or slow the decay of important stone structures, to better understand how climate shapes the land, and to discover more about this exquisite pattern in nature.


Although Dali seems already to have settled into his mature style by the '30s, the omega replica still witnessed unexpected flashes of innovation that pointed ahead to the postwar developments of a younger generation. For instance, the shaped canvases of 1936, their frames conforming to anatomical contours, might be perceived as unexpected foreshadowings of louis vuitton replica; and the Mae West Lips Sofa of 1938 would look quite at home in a Claes Oldenburg retrospective. But the major revelation of the Philadelphia exhibition was Dali's postwar work, which brims with totally fresh inventions, rolex replica, yet very different from his classic icons. This material also constantly surprises us by intersecting with the art of the later twentieth century, a time when few paid heed to what Dali was up to, as was the case with the omega replica late work of Picabia and de Chirico. Of these unexpected discoveries, perhaps the most precocious are The Sistine Madonna, 1958, and Portrait of My Dead Brother, 1963, in which painted screens of benday dots (some made of cartier replica!) veil phantom images, including a of Raphael's religious icon afloat in a giant ear and the ghostly head of Dali's brother, also named Salvador, who died nine months before the artist's own birth. These ambitious paintings seem simultaneously to belong to the Surrealist past and to the young art of the '60s, acting as replica watches uk of Roy Lichtenstein, Sigmar Polke, and Chuck Close, not to mention Op art.